WHAT IS A PUBLIC APOLOGY?
- A Public Apology is a “communicative act located at a critical point in an evolving conflict. It looks simultaneously to a problematic past and a potentially reconciling future” (Zohar Kampf, The Age of Apology: Evidence from the Israeli Public Discourse).
- A Public Apology is one of the tools which exist inside the toolbox of Transitional Justice measures. As such, it has justice-seeking objectives.
- A Public Apology is firstly a speech act, with a performer (the wrongdoer or his representative), an addressee (the victim or his representative) and a public (media, national citizens, and even the whole world).
- A Public Apology conveys a normative message. It “serves to recall and reaffirm allegiance to codes of behaviour and belief whose integrity has been tested and challenged by transgression” (Nicholas Tavuchis, Mea Culpa: a Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation).
2. Public Apologies around the World
Compiled by Zohar Kampf, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. email@example.com
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Susan Wise Bauer (2009) The Art of the Public Grovel: Sexual Sin and Public Confession in America. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
* Bavelas, Janet, 2004. An analysis of formal apologies by Canadian churches to first nations. Occasional papers No. 1. Center for studies in religious
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Benoit, W. L. (1997). Hugh Grant's image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes. Communication Quarterly. 45 (3): 251–267.
* Bergman, L.M. and Kasper, G. (1993). Perception and Performance in Native and Nonnative Apology. In: Kasper, G. and Blum-Kulka, S.(eds.). Interlanguage Pragmatics. (pp. 82-107) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blaney, J.R., and Benoit, W.L. (2001). The Clinton scandals and the politics of image restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger.
* Blum-Kulka, S. and Olshtain, E. (1984), Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5 (3): 196-215.
* Blum-Kulka, S., House, J. and Kasper, G. (Eds.).(1989). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. New Jersey: Ablex.
Borkin, A and Reinhart, S.M. (1978). Excuse me and I'm Sorry. TESOL Quarterly, 12 (1): 57-69.
Brooks, R. L. (1999). The age of apology. In: R. L. Brooks (Ed.). When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparation for Human Injustice. (pp. 3-12) New York: New York University Press.
* Cohen, A.D. and Olshtain, E. (1985) Comparing apologies across languages. In: K. R Jankowsky,. Scientific and Humanistic Dimensions of language (pp. 175-184). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Cohen, R. (2004). Apology and reconciliation in international relations. in Y, Bar-Siman-Tov (ed). From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation (pp. 177-196). New York: Oxford University Press.
* Coulmas, F. (1981). Poison to your soul: Thanks and apologies contrastively viewed. In: F. Coulmas (Ed.) Conversational Routine. (Pp. 69-92) The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter.
Cunningham, M. (1999). Saying sorry: The politics of apology. Political Quarterly, 70 (3): 285-293.
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Digeser, P. E. (2001). Political Forgiveness. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
* Deutschmann, Mats, 2003. Apologizing in British English. Umea University Press, Umea.
* Edmondson, W. J. (1981). On saying you’re sorry. In: F. Coulmas, (Ed.) Conversational Routine (pp. 273-288). The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter.
Ely, R and Gleason, B. J. (2006) sorry I said that: apologies in young children's discourse. Journal of Child Language. 33 (3): 599-620.
* Fraser, B. (1981). On apologizing. In: F. Coulmas, (Ed.). Conversational Routine.
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* Garcia, C. (1989).Apologizing in English: Politeness strategies used by native and non native speakers. Multilingua 8 (1): 3-20.
Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in Public. London: Allen Lane.
Govier, T., and Verwoerd, W. (2002). The promise and pitfalls of apology. Journal of Social Philosophy. 33 (1): 67-82
Gibney, Mark, Howerd-Hassmann, Rhoda, Coicaud, Jean-Mark Sreiner, Niklaus, (Eds.), 2008. The Age of Apology. Pennsylvania University Press, Pennsylvania.
* Harris, Sandra, Grainger, Karen, Mullany, Louise, 2006. The pragmatics of political apologies. Discourse and Society 17 (6), 715–737.
* Grainger, K and Harris, S. (2007). Introduction: special issue on apologies. Journal of Politeness Research.3 (1): 1-10.
Harter M. L., Ronald. S. J. and Japp, P. M. (2000). President Clinton's apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: a narrative of remembrance, redefinition, and reconciliation. Howard Journal of Communications. 11 (1): 19-34.
Harvey, J. (1995). The emerging practice of institutional apologies. International Journal of Applied Philosophy. 9 (2): 57-65.
Hearit, K. M. (2006). Crisis Management by Apology. New-Jersey: Lawerance Earlbaum.
*Holmes, J. (1989). Sex differences and apologies: one aspect of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics, 10 (20: 194–213.
* Holmes, J. (1990). Apologies in New Zealand English. Language in Society, 19 (2): 155-199.
* Ide R. (1998). 'Sorry for your kindness': Japanese interactional ritual in public discourse. Journal of Pragmatics. 29 (5): 509-529
* Jaworski, A. (1994) ‘Apologies and Non-apologies: Negotiation in Speech Act Realisation’. Text 14 (2): 185-206.
Joyce, R. (1999) Apologizing. Public Affairs Quarterly. 13(2): 159-173.
* Kampf, Z. (2008) ‘The Pragmatics of Forgiveness: Judgments of Apologies in the Israeli Political Arena’, Discourse & Society 19 (5): 577-598.
* Kampf, Z., Public (non-) apologies: The discourse of minimizing responsibility. J. Pragmatics (2009), doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2008.11.007
Kampf, Z. (forthcoming). ‘The Age of Apology: Evidence from the Israeli Public Discourse’. Social Semiotics
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* Kampf, Z and Blum-Kulka, S. (2007). Do children apologize to each other? Apology events in young Israeli peer discourse. Journal of Politeness Research.3 (1): 11-38.
Kiss, E. (1998) Saying we're sorry: Liberal democracy and the rhetoric of collective identity. Constellations, 4 (3): 387-398.
Kotani, M. (2002). Expressing Gratitude and Indebtedness: Japanese Speakers Use of “ I’m Sorry” in English Conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 35 (1): 39-72.
* Koutsantoni, D. (2007) "I can now apologize to you twice from the bottom of my heart": Apologies in Greek reality TV. Journal of Politeness Research.3 (1): 93-124.
Kramer-Moore, D and Moore, M (2003). Pardon me for breathing: seven types of apology. A Review of General Semantics. 60 (2): 160-170.
* Lakoff, R, B. (2000). The Language War. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
* Lakoff, R. B. (2001). Nine way of looking at apologies: The necessity for interdisciplinary theory and method in discourse analysis. In: D. Schiffrin D. Tannen, and H. Hamilton, (Eds.). Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 199-214). London: Blackwell.
* Liebersohn, Y., Neuman, Y., and Bekerman, Z. (2004). Oh baby, it's hard for me to say I'm sorry: Public apologetic speech and cultural rhetorical resources. Journal of Pragmatics. 36 (5): 921-944.
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* Meier, A.J. (1998) ‘Apologies: What Do We Know?’ International Journal of Applied Linguistics 8 (2): 215-231.
* Meier, A. J. (2004). Conflict and the Power of Apologies. PhiN (Philologie im Netz). 30: 1-17. http://www.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin30/p30t1.htm
* Murata, Kumiko (1998): "Has He Apologized or Not"?: A Cross-Cultural Misunderstanding between the UK and Japan on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of VJ Day in Britain". Pragmatics 8, 501–513.
* Obeng S.G. (1999). Apologies in Akan discourse. Journal of Pragmatics. 31 (5): 709-734.
Ohbuchi, K. Agarie, N and Kameda, M. (1989). Apology as aggression control: Its role in mediating appraisal of and response to harm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (2): 219-227
* Olshtain, E. (1983). Sociocultural competence and language transfer: The case of apology. In: S. M. Gass and L. Selinker (Eds.). Language Transfer in Language Learning. (pp. 232-249) Rowley, MA : Newbury House.
* Olshtain, E. (1989). Apologies across languages. In: S. Blum-Kulka, J. House, and G. Kasper, (Eds.). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies (pp. 155-173). New Jersey: Ablex.
* Olshtain, E., and Cohen, A.D. (1983). Apology: A speech act set. In: N. Wolfson and E, Jude (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition, (pp 18-35). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
* Owen, M. (1983). Apologies and Remedial Interchanges. New York: Mouton Publisher.
Park, H. S., Lee .E.H. and Song A.J. (2005) "I am sorry to send you SPAM": Cross-cultural differences in use of apologies in email advertising in Korea and the U.S. Human communication research. 31 (3): 365-398.
* Reiter, R. M. (2000). Linguistic Politeness in Britain and Uruguay. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
* Robinson, J. D. (2004). The sequential Organization of "explicit" apologies in naturally occurred English. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 37 (3): 291-330.
Scher S.J. and Darley J.M. (1997). How effective are the things people say to apologize? Effects of the realization of the apology speech act. Journal of
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Schlenker, B. and Darby, B. W. (1981). The Use of apologies in social predicaments. Social Psychology Quarterly. 44 (3): 271-278.
Sugimoto, N.(1997). A Japan-U.S. comparison of apology styles. Communication Research, 24 (4): 349-369
* Suszczynska, M. (1999). Apologizing in English, Polish and Hungarian: different languages, different strategies. Journal of Pragmatics 31 (8): 1053–1065.
Taft L. (2000). Apology subverted: The comodification of apology. Yale Law Journal. 109 (5): 1135-1160.
Takaku S. (2001). The effects of apology and perspective taking on interpersonal forgiveness: A dissonance-attribution model of interpersonal forgiveness. Journal of Social Psychology 141 (4): 494-508.
Takaku, S., Weiner, B., and Ohbuchi, K. I (2001) A crosscultural examination of the effect of apology and perspective taking on forgiveness. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 20 (1-2): 144-166.
Tavuchis, N. (1991). Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation.
Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
* Trosborg, A. (1987). Apology Strategies in Natives/Non-Natives. Journal-of-Pragmatics, 11, 2, 147-167.
* Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, Complains, Apologies (Studies in Anthropological linguistics 7). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Torpey, J. (2003). The entrepreneurs of memory. OpenDemocracy.
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Zhang, J. and Benoit, W. (2004). Message strategies of Saudi Arabia’s image restoration campaign in the U.S. after September 11. Public Relations Review, 30(2): 162-167.